Egypt can’t escape its authoritarian history

People_demand_removal_of_the_regime.jpg
Photo Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Political Regimes in the Middle East (Egypt)

The MENA region is usually considered a part of the world that has a number of authoritarian style governments whether monarchical or somewhat totalitarian. Most authoritarian republics in the Middle East fall into one of two categories: RPLA which stands for Resource Poor Labor Abundant or the RRLA category which stands for Resource Rich Labor Abundant. Those who rule the countries in the RRLA category have an easier time maintaining their rule as they can provide coercive force through secret police, push for limits on freedom of expression through intimidation, as well as temporarily satisfy their populations by providing for social services such as free education and health care. Some authoritarian governments such as Kuwait and Oman can be said to have populations who are satiated by their governments and, therefore, have very few uprisings or protests in recent years.

“Regime change may be revolutionary and violent, and it can also be peaceful and incremental. (3)” For example, the Pahlavi dynastic rule, when moved to the Islamic republic or theocracy, as described in the Political Economy of the Middle East, was violent, while in Turkey moving from a single-party authoritarian regime to a two party system with contested elections was fairly peaceful in the early 1950’s. (3) The history of the country plays a huge role in its long-term political and economic future.

Prior to the uprising in 2011 and the Arab Spring which I discussed in previous blog posts, Egypt had been moving from Nasser’s single-party, authoritarian socialist regime toward a multiparty system in which private economic interests were increasingly integrated although current political changes have backtracked this a bit.

Will Egypt always revert back to Authoritarian style ruling?

Egypt can be described previously as an authoritarian system who “financially adopted quasi-socialist policies to justify their rule with promises of redistribution, social mobility, and a radical reworking of the social order that had prevailed in the colonial era systems. (3)” As discussed in the previous blog about the Arab Spring, if countries such as Egypt who are considered RPLA didn’t create economic improvements, they couldn’t maintain power and showed that they could be taken down which later led to Egypt’s revolution.

Mubarak became President after the more liberal, Sadat was murdered by an Islamist militant organization. He distrusted advocacy groups and used his security forces to crush militant Islamic groups. In doing so, he began to re-establish authoritarian rule after Sadat had allowed for a bit more freedom. He did, however, work more for the development of the country and accepted support from international institutions such as the IMF and world Bank.

However Mubarak’s Presidency was marked by corruption, cronyism, and government repression with increased poverty rates although there was huge macroeconomic reforms and privatization, which meant the money was going somewhere else rather than benefiting the people. Under Mubarak’s rule Egypt was on its way to a revolution when only the elite class really benefited from market reforms and the middle-class sector slowly began to feel the economic strain.

Mubarak
Photo Courtesy of media.nola.com 

When Morsi became his successor in new democratic elections in 2011 via the support and push of the Muslim Brotherhood, he was removed by the military-ruled government in who then cracked down on human rights thus bringing back authoritarian style ruling which was predicted by Al-Jazzera in stating “In spite of its supposed successes up to this point, the logic of the new authoritarianism cannot hold in a future Egypt that is not only democratic but embodies the principles of political pluralism as well.(1)” The hope for Egypt to further its democratic transition was crushed with the reversal of the election by the military.

armed-egyptian-police-3
Courtesy of Middle East Monitor  

Egypt’s Future

Presently, Egypt has returned to military rule and repression under Al-Sisi thus going back to its past and moving away from modernization and liberalization.

Under Al-Sisi, the 2011 revolution has almost completely reversed itself. In The Middle East Monitor, Nasim Ahemd describes Egypt’s present situation as this, “Egypt’s massive U-turn from the spirit of the 25 January Revolution and the alarming rise of political repression and human rights abuses following the overthrow of President Morsi has been documented widely by numerous human rights groups. The statistics are chilling; 529 people were sentenced to death in a trial lasting just a few hours, for example.” He then goes on to state, “A dark cloud is hanging over Egyptian politics. Al-Sisi’s first electoral victory last May was conducted in this climate of fear, repression and intimidation that lead to mass arrests. Human Rights Watch reported that more than 16,000 people were arrested and that the mass arrest of thousands of political dissidents, whether Islamist or secular, has all but shut down the political arena and stripped Egyptian elections of any real meaning.”

The spirit of the revolution has seemed to have dissapear at least from the public view as the population has to live under a repressive, military backed ruler. Egypt’s future remains uncertain, but the theme of authoritarian rule in the MENA region certainly remains true for Egypt.

Sources:

  • (1)  http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/12/2012124111437225259.html
  • (2) “Authoritarianism.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. William Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 213-214. Global Issues In Context.
  • (3) Richards, Alan, John Waterbury, Ishac Diwan, and Melani Cammett. A Political Economy of the Middle East. Boulder: Westview, 2015. Print.
  • (4) https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/articles/africa/16535-can-egypt-escape-the-grip-of-its-authoritarian-past
  • (5) http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/05/28/egypt-elections-amidst-political-repression

6 thoughts on “Egypt can’t escape its authoritarian history

  1. Wonderful Blog! Egyptian President Abdul Fattah Al-Sisi has succeeded in overcoming international and regional challenges to consolidate the new regime. So with that being said, it was interesting to read in your blog that the MENA region as stated in the beginning of your blog is considered to be a part of the world that has numerous amount of authoritarian style governments. And I love the fact that the RPLA was brought up due to the fact that this is a factor that can’t be ignored when reading chapter 3 of A Political Economy of the Middle East. As far as the end of your blog which was in regards to Egypt’s future, I agree with the fact that their future is uncertain only due to the fact that readings have stated some of the exact information that was provided in your blog so overall I believe the blog was amazing as i said in the beginning and can’t wait to read more from you.

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  2. Egypt is in trouble and is caught in a viscous cycle like most other MENA governments attempting to transition. I feel bad for the Egyptian people. I fear that they will remain severely oppressed under authoritarian rule and Al-sisi will have to be killed or extremely pressured/threatened to leave office before there can be any hope for change. Al-sisi continues to use the military and police to make sure that does not happen. It might take another revolution to remove him from office but sadly I do not think the Egyptian people are currently up to that monumental task. Like you mentioned Al-sisi has used the military and police to arrest tens of thousands of people and has executed and tortured more. There will have to be 100% commitment from the Egyptian people for another revolution to work.

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  3. First of all, that was a great blog.

    Egypt is a very interesting country. It went through numerous of political regimes, but authoritarian regimes are the only regimes that could live in this country. The situation of Egypt makes me think about a very interesting question, which is that do Middle Eastern people really want to live under democratic regimes? The story of Egypt suggests that the answer of this question is NO. As it is known, the only democratically elected regime was Morsi regime. In fact, Egyption people could not live under President Morsi rule even for one year. As I understood from your blog, the new military regime, that is ruled by Al-Sisi, seem to be the right regime of this country. The country has been stable since the beginning of Al-Sisi regime in early 2014.

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  4. Great Blog! It seems likes over the years Egypt has gone through a lot of struggles and changes to get where it is today. I believe integrating economic policies with politics is good under the current regime because it is bringing Egypt towards the right track, Al-sisi ‘s regime has been helping as stated but it is also a very new one relatively. Hopefully other nations of the MENA can follow examples of this regime.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Great Blog! It seems likes over the years Egypt has gone through a lot of struggles and changes to get where it is today. I believe integrating economic policies with politics is good under the current regime because it is bringing Egypt towards the right track, Al-sisi ‘s regime has been helping as stated but it is also a very new one relatively. Perhaps the authoritarian government is the best choice for Egypts future Hopefully other nations of the MENA can follow examples of this regime.

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  6. good work! You will have to deal with the Muslim Brotherhood and Morsi in a lot more detail in the chapter 12 blog coming much later in the semester. I was surprised that he only elicited a few lines in this one.

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